ANCIENT BOOKS: Mixtec Group Codices
CODEX SELDEN/CODEX AÑUTE
Scene by Scene Description
(the numbers in parentheses below correlate with the blue-numbers added to the pages of the codices).
Page 1, Band I: The narrative begins with a damaged year sign signifying either 4 or 5 Reed. On the day 2 House in this year, The Sun God, "One Death", and the Venus God, "One Earthquake", descend from the sky and cast spears into Jeweled Town of Sand, possibly a location in the Jaltepec area (1). The rupture in the earth miraculously leads to the birth of Lord Eleven Water who is attached to the orifice with a red umbilical cord. He then marries Lady Seven Eagle at Double Bent Hill of the Head (2).
Page 1, Band II: Eleven Water and Lady Seven Eagle have a daughter named Lady Ten Eagle who marries Lord Three Eagle, son of Lord Ten House and Lady One Grass of River of the Serpent, or "Yute Coo" (3). Lady Ten Eagle and Lord Three Eagle have a daughter named Lady Eight Rabbit, "Sun Head" (4).
Page 1, Band III: Two priests named Ten Flint, "Earthmonster", and Ten Lizard spread tobacco at River of the Bird/Stick Bundle. They then travel to Apoala and offer idols to Lady Nine Crocodile who gives them orders (5).
Page 2, Band I: On Lady Nine Crocodile's orders, Priests Ten Flint and Ten Lizard travel to Achiutla where, in the year 10 Reed, they attend the birth of Lord Two Grass from a tree at Achiutla (6). Others who were born at the same time include, One Eagle, Three Water, Five Deer, Five Earthquake, Five Lizard, and Five Eagle.
Page 2, Band II: In the year 10 Reed, day 4 Deer, Lord Two Grass marries Lady Eight Rabbit "Sun Head" at Temple of the Cob-web (Chindua?) (7). Lady Eight Rabbit is the daughter of Lord Four Eagle and Lady Ten Eagle.
Page 3, Band I: Lord Two Grass and Lady Eight Rabbit "Sun Head" have a son named Lord Ten Reed "Eagle" (8). In the year 2 Flint, day 3 Rain, Priest Ten Lizard and Priest Three Flower bind the sacred bundles (9). Bundle 1 is surmounted by the head of Lady Eight Rabbit and Bundle 2 is surmounted by the "reptile eye" from the tree from which Lord Two Grass was born.
Page 3, Band II: Lord Ten Reed "Eagle" sits in a temple and watches Priest Ten Flint offer tobacco to ritual objects that include a bundle surmounted by the head of "Dzahui", the Mixtec rain deity, and possibly a red and white stick bundle (10).
Page 3, Band III: Lord Ten Reed "Eagle" sits in a courtyard and speaks before a series of ritual objects that include axes, ropes, a human heart, a tobacco pouch, and caged jaguars (11).
Page 3, Band IV: In addition to the objects listed previously are two caged eagles as well as a sacred bundle and a sacred arrow both surmounted by the heads of a deity called a "ñuhu." The objects are either presented by or received by Lord Nine Rain who appears at Hill of the Head (12). Behind him are seated Lord Eight Dog and Lord Four Grass at Zahuatlan (Hill that Danced) (13).
Page 4, Band I: The list of nobles to whom Ten Reed Eagle made offerings of gifts, or from whom he recieved the gifts, continues. The third in the list is Lord Two Rabbit of Sachio. Others are: Lord Ten Grass of Hill of the Place of the Maguey, Lord Ten Vulture of Mouth with Arrow, or Andua, and Lords Five Serpent and Four House of Place of the Head, or San Pedro Cántaros (Smith 2000:109) (14).
Page 4, Band II: The list of nobles also includes Lords Ten Reed and One Vulture of White Hill, Lords Seven Jaguar and Five Rain of Place of the Earth Monster, Lord Ten Earthquake of Hill of the Seated Man, and Lords Ten Dog and Ten Monkey of Hill of the Necklace - possibly Cozcaltepec or Adeques (See Smith 2000:105-107 for discussion however) (15).
Page 4, Band III: The list continues with Lord Two Wind of Hill of the Deer. A place sign for Teozacoalco appears followed by Hill of the Place of the Eagle Wings. In the year Eight Flint, day 9 House, Lord Ten Reed "Eagle" is seated at Hill of Grass (16).
Page 4, Band IV: Lord Ten Reed "Eagle" Is next - seated at Hill of the Eagle Wings (17). In the year 9 House, day 7 Eagle, Lord Ten Reed is dressed as a priest and stands in a courtyard making tobacco offerings before a sacred bundle in a temple (18).
Page 5, Band I: In the year 12 Flint, day 7 Deer, Lord Ten Reed marries Lady Two Lizard who is the daughter of Lord Five Flower and Lady Five Flower of Hill of the Flower Tree (19).
Page 5, Band II: Lord Three Rain, probably the son of Lord Ten Reed "Eagle", makes a tobacco offering before a temple with a sacred bundle surmounted by a "ñuhu" head at Jaltepec. Like his predecessor, Lord Three Rain then marries Lady Seven Death (20).
Page 5, Band III: Lady Seven Death is the daughter of Lord One Serpent and Lady Eight Flint of Hill of the Whirlpool (21). Their appearance signifies the end of the first dynasty of Jaltepec. It was founded by nobles from Town of Sand, Achiutla, and Yute Coo who were miraculoulsy born from elements of the natural environment. The codex is curiously silent as to what happened to Lord Three Rain. Following the parentage statement for Lady Seven Death, Three Rain's Wife, we see a new couple - the famous Lord Eight Wind and his wife Lady Ten Deer of Suchixtlán (22). They appear as the parents of Lady Nine Wind who has now taken on the role of sponsor of the tobacco ritual before the temple of the ñuhu at Jaltepec.
Page 5, Band IV: In the year 3 House, day 10 Deer, Lady Nine Wind marries Lord Ten Eagle "Stone", son of Lord Ten Flower and Lady Two Serpent of Tilantongo (23). Lady Nine Wind and Lord Ten Eagle have a son named Lord One Reed but he was apparently captured; he appears not only with an attached umbilical cord, but also with the flag of a sacrificial victim (24).
Page 6, Band I: Lady Nine Wind and Lord Ten Eagle have two other sons named Lord Twelve Water and Lord Three Water who were also executed (25). All three brothers were apparently presented at Chalcatongo where they were no doubt entombed in year 8 House, day 8 Vulture. On the same day Lady Six Monkey, the daughter of Lady Nine Wind and Lord Ten Eagle, confered with the priest Ten Lizard. He must have been very old at this time, for he first appeared at the birth of Lord Two Grass at the tree at Achiutla, three generations earlier (26).
Page 6, Band II: In the year 4 House, day 4 Wind, Lord Ten Eagle (father of Lady Six Monkey) captures his brother-in-law, Lord Three Lizard Jeweled Hair, at Jaltepec (27). The exact reasons for the war are unclear but may have involved a dispute over the succession of Tilantongo. In the next scene Lord Two Rain, one of the heirs to the Tilantongo throne, is shown venerating sacred objects in a cave (28).
Page 6, Band III: Priest Ten Lizard directs Lady Six Monkey to speak with Priest Six Vulture "Digging Stick". Six Vulture directs Lady Six Monkey to enter the earth through a cave. In the year 5 Reed, day 6 Serpent, Lady Six Monkey arrives at Chalcatongo (29).
Page 6, Band IV: Lady Six Monkey and her future husband, Lord Eleven Wind, appear before Lady Nine Grass, priestess and Oracle of the Dead at the cave in Chalcatongo (30). After the meeting, they either present, or are presented with, gifts of jewels.
Page 7, Band I: The gifts exchanged between Lady Nine Grass, Lady Six Monkey and her future husband, Lord Eleven Wind, also include a golden necklace, a stream of blood and a human heart attached to a human hand grasping a jewel, a second jewel, a skull-headed snake with bone blood-letters, a quechquemitl (a cape) and a skirt. In the year 10 Reed, day 10 Wind, Lady Six Monkey and Lord Eleven Wind engage in a dance circle with a series of gods (31). One appears to be Lady Nine Grass (with her skeletal lower jaw) and another appears to be Lord Nine Wind recognizable by his duck-beak mask. In the year 12 House, day 7 Flower, Lady Six Monkey and Lord Eleven Wind take a ritual bath together (32).
Page 7, Band II: Depicted are: two red xicollis (vests), two feather staffs, two black and white xicollis, and a xicolli or robe with a shell on it. They may be gifts connected to the bathing scene below. At Jaltepec priest Ten Lizard offers jewels and other objects to Lord Two Flower and Lord Three Crocodile. In the year 13 Rabbit, day 9 Serpent, the lords set out on a journey (33).
Page 7, Band III: Traveling with Lord Three Crocodile, Lord Two Flower carries Lady Six Monkey on his back with a tumpline (34). They encounter Lord Six Lizard and Lord Two Crocodile at Hill of the Moon and Hill of the Insect. The two men threaten the traveling party by speaking "words of flint" against them.
Page 7, Band IV: Lady Six Monkey consults Lady Nine Grass at Chalcatongo in regard to the threats made by Lord Six Lizard and Lord Two Crocodile (35). Two warriors appear seated at Chalcatongo and Hill of the Deer as if in attendance at the meeting.
Page 8, Band I: Lady Six Monkey attacks and captures Lord Six Lizard and Lord Two Crocodile at Hill of the Moon/Hill of the Insect in the year 13 Rabbit, days 3 Grass to 4 Reed (36). Shortly thereafter, Lord Two Lizard is sacrificed at Jaltepec.
Page 8, Band II: Lord Two Flower and Lord Three Crocodile take Lady Six Monkey to the Temple of Red and White Bundle, the home of Lord Eleven Wind, and sacrifice Lord Six Lizard there (37).
Page 8, Band III: Lord Two Flower blesses Lady Six Monkey in a courtyard at Red and White Bundle, and awards her with a quechquemitl ornamented with a chevron band signifying her prowess as a warrior (38). In the year 13 Rabbit, day 6 Eagle, Lady Six Monkey marries Lord Eleven Wind at Red and White Bundle (39).
Page 8, Band IV: In the year 2 Flint, day 4 Wind, Lord Four Wind is born to Lady Six Monkey and Lord Eleven Wind (40). In the year 5 Reed, day 1 crocodile, Lord One Crocodile is born to Lady Six Monkey and Eleven Wind (41). Lord Four Wind then marries Lady Ten Flower at Place of Flints, or "Mogote del Cacique", a large archaeological zone on the border between Jaltepec and Tilantongo (42).
Page 9, Band I: Lady Ten Flower was the daughter of Lord Eight Deer and Lady Thirteen Serpent of Tilantongo (43). In the year 12 Rabbit, day 6 Dog, Lord One Crocodile, son of Lady Six Monkey, burns tobacco before a temple at Jaltepec (44).
Page 9, Band II: Lord One Crocodile marries Lady Six Wind in the year 6 Rabbit, day 5 Deer (45). Lady Six Wind was the daughter of Lord Eight Deer and Lady Thirteen Serpent of Tilantongo. A second wife, Lady Six Flint, appears behind Lady Six Wind (46). Five Lizard is born, but this seems to be the end of the second dynasty of Jaltepec for the lineage ends with this individual. A Lady Twelve Crocodile follows. She is also a daughter of Lord Eight Deer and Lady Thirteen Serpent of Tilantongo. She marries Lord Six Rain of Hill of Gravel or "San Jerónimo Sosola" (47) (Jansen 2000: 29).
Page 9, Band III: Lady Six Rabbit marries Lord Three Wind at Hill of the Earth Monster Temple (48). Lord Five Lizard marries Lady Four Rain who may be the daughter of Lady Eight Rabbit shown seated at Ash-Sweatbath-Earth Monster.
Page 9, Band IV: Lord Three Reed marries Lady Nine Rain who came from Ravine of the Temple (50). Lord One Rain is born. Lady Three Flint marries Lord Eight Rain at Hill of the Whirlpool.
Page 10, Band I: Lord One Rain "Eagle" marries Lady Two Crocodile, who is the daughter of Lord Six House and Lady Seven Grass of Plain at the River of the Flower (51). Lord Five Flower marries Lady Ten Water.
Page 10, Band II: Lady Ten Water came from Hill of the Flower Tree. Lord Twelve Grass "White Jaguar" marries Lady One Flower (52). Lady One Flower is the daughter of Lord Three Wind and Lady One Serpent of Hill of Necklace.
Page 10, Band III: Lord Twelve Water marries Lady Eleven Flower and Lady Two Reed (53). Lady Eleven Flower came from Town of the Split Roof Temple. Lord Ten Death marries Lady Four Earthquake who came from "Etlatongo", or Place of the Bean (54).
Page 10, Band IV: Lord Ten Death and Lady Four Earthquake have a son named Lord Six Reed (55). A second son, named Lord Four Flint, became ruler of Hill of the Whirlpool and married Lady Twelve Lizard. Lord Six Lizard married Lady Five Earthquake.
Page 11, Band I: Lady Five Earthquake came from Bone Temple. Lord Eleven Flint marries Lady Three Jaguar (56). The place sign for Jaltepec appears for the first time since Page 9, Band I. It is surmounted by intertwined snakes.
Page 11, Band II: Lord Thirteen Wind marries Lady Twelve Rain who is the daughter of Lord Five Dog and Lady Seven Earthquake of Zahuatlan (57). Twelve Rain and Thirteen Wind have a son named Lord Nine Lizard (58). Lord Nine House also appears. He is distinguished from Lord Nine Lizard in that he has no umbilical cord. In fact we know from comparative material that he is a Lord of Teozacoalco (recorded in Codex Bodley Page 17, Band V and in Codex Zouche-Nuttall, Page 32).
Page 11, Band III: Lady Nine Earthquake, possibly a daughter of Lord Thirteen Wind and Lady Twelve Rabbit of Jaltepec, marries Lord Seven Lizard at Hill of the Loin Cloth (59). Lord Nine House is dressed as a priest and makes a tobacco offering at a cave at River of Sand (60).
Page 11, Band IV: River of the Twisted Serpent is surmounted by a jaguar, a coyote, a fire serpent priest called a yahui, and an eagle (61). A sacred bundle surmounted by a ñuhu head is set beside Hill of Arrows and the year 7 Flint, day 12 Death is recorded.
Page 12, Band I: In the year 7 Flint, day 12 Death, together with his compatriot Lord Nine House of Teozacoalco, Lord Nine Lizard leaves Hill of Arrows to attack and capture two enemies (62). Lord Nine House subsequently sacrifices a man named Thirteen Deer (63).
Page 12, Band II: Human hearts, perhaps those of Thirteen Deer and the other man who was captured on Page 12, Band I, are delivered to the Sun God by a yahui priest and an eagle before the Temple of Jaltepec. Lord Nine Lizard of Jaltepec marries Lady Twelve Deer (64).
Page 12, Band III: Lady Twelve Deer is the daughter of Lord Thirteen Serpent and Lady Two House of Temple of the Eagle (65). She and Lord Nine Serpent of Jaltepec have three sons named: Lord Seven House Eagle, Lord Three Crocodile, and Lord Two Jaguar (66).
Page 12, Band IV: Lord Seven House Eagle marries Lady Twelve Lizard. In the year 9 Flint, day 7 Rabbit, Three Crocodile and his brother, Lord Seven House, have died and are depicted as mummy bundles at Hill of the Axes (67).
Page 13, Band I: Lord Six Water of Cuilapan-Zaachila faces the bodies of Three Crocodile and his brother (Lord Seven House) on the previous page (68). The fact that Six Water holds a war club may imply that he had something to do with their deaths. In the year 5 Flint, day 11 Eagle, Lord Nine Lizard of Jaltepec captures Lord One Grass Stone Man-ñuhu, and Lord Four Crocodile (69).
Page 13, Band II: Lord One Grass Stone Man-ñuhu and Lord Four Crocodile are rulers of Hill of the Jaguar Claw. In the year 7 Reed, day 1 House, Lord Nine Lizard of Jaltepec attacks Zahuatlan (70). Nine Lizard arrives at a palace to marry Lady Twelve Deer.
Page 13, Band III: Nine Lizard married Lady Twelve Deer in the year 8 Flint, day 9 House (71). They have a son named Lord Two Jaguar who marries Lady One Serpent, daughter of Lord Nine House of Teozacoalco and Lady Three Rabbit of Tilantongo (72). A second son is born and named Lord Five Water Crossed Sticks-Eye.
Page 13, Band IV: A daughter of Lord Nine Lizard and Lady Twelve Deer (named Lady Eight Flower) marries Lord Six Jaguar of Eagle Rock-Bean Temple, possibly Etlatongo (73). Lord Five Water on the other hand marries Lady Seven Rain.
Page 14, Band I: Lady Seven Rain is the daughter of Lord Eleven Wind and Lady Four Grass of Tlaxiaco. The place sign for Tlaxiaco is signified by an eye set above crossed sticks. This may indicate that Lord Five Water wears the same symbol because he married into Tlaxiacos dynasty. In the year 2 Reed, day 10 Monkey, Lord Ten Monkey is born (74). Lady Thirteen Wind travels from Eagle Rock-Bean Temple/Etlatongo to marry Lord Six Deer of Tilantongo (75).
Page 14, Band II: Lady Eleven Rain travels from Tilantongo to Hill of the Whirlpool to marry Lord Eight Eagle (76). Lady Nine Wind travels from Tlaxiaco to Chalcatongo to marry Lord Six Crocodile (77).
Page 14, Band III: Lady Three Flint travels to a town from Chalcatongo. In the year 9 Reed, day 1 Reed, Lord Ten Monkey, probably the grandson of Lord Nine Lizard and the son of Lord Five Water of Tlaxiaco, makes a tobacco offering before the temple of the ñuhu at Jaltepec (78).
Page 14, Band IV: Lord Ten Monkey marries Lady Five Water Jeweled ñuhu in the year 12 Rabbit, day 7 Water (79). Lady Five Water traveled from Plain of the Market where her parents Lord Four Deer and Lady Ten Water lived.
Page 15, Band I: In the year 2 Reed, day 3 Death, Lord Three Death is born (80). He is the son of Lord Ten Monkey and Lady Five Water of Jaltepec. Lady Four House marries Lord Three Wind of Tequixtepec (Hill of the Shell). Lady Five House marries Lord Nine Jaguar of Comaltepec (Hill of the Comal).
Page 15, Band II: Lady Five Water Jeweled ñuhu marries Lord Two Death who traveled from Town of the Earth Monster (81). Since Lady Five Water had been married to Lord Ten Monkey of Jaltepec, we may presume that he died and she remarried. Lady Five House of Town of the Earth Monster marries Lord Nine jaguar at Town in the Ravine.
Page 15, Band III: Lord Three Death, son of Lord Ten Monkey and Lady Five Water at Jaltepec, marries Lady Three Crocodile in the year 5 Flint, day 9 Rabbit (82). Lady Three Serpent came from Hill of the Whirlpool where Lord Eight Eagle and Lady Eleven Rain had ruled.
Page 15, Band IV: In the year 1 Flint, day 1 Monkey, Lord One Monkey was born (83). He was the son of Lord Three Death and Lady Three Crocodile. Lord Three Death then fights an enemy named Eight Eagle, probably his father-in-law, at Jaltepec (84).
Page 16, Band I: Lady Nine Deer meets, or actually marries, Lord One Flower of Comaltepec (85). Lady Eight Lizard marries Lord Three Wind at Bent Red Mountain.
Page 16, Band II: Lady Nine Deer travels to a temple. In the year 3 Flint, day 9 Wind, Lord Three Death dies and is depicted as a mummy bundle (86). In the year 6 Reed, day 4 Crocodile Lord One Monkey, Three Deaths son, marries Lady Seven Water.
Page 16, Band III: Lord Four Flower and Lady Seven Vulture are seated at Tilantongo. They may be the parents of Lady Seven Water. In the year 8 House, day 5 Serpent, Lord One Monkey fights Lord Three Monkey at Jaltepec (87). Lord Three Monkey is ruler of Chindua according to Codex Bodley Page 17, Band IV.
Page 16, Band IV: In the year 10 Reed, day 4 Serpent, Lord Four Serpent is born (88). He is probably the son of Lord One Monkey. Lord One Monkey marries a lady whose name cannot be deciphered but it is probably Lady Seven Water, who appears as a mummy in the next scene (89). She came from Red and White Bundle. Lord One Monkey is shown as ruler of Hill of the Quetzal, possibly present day Guaxilotitlán in the Etla arm of the Valley of Oaxaca.
Page 17, Band I: In the year 10 House, day 7 Earthquake, Lady Seven Water died and is shown as a mummy bundle. In the year 13 Flint, day 8 Deer, Lord One Monkey died and is shown as a mummy bundle (90). The year 4 Reed, day 9 Flower is attached to Hill of the Cacao at Mouth of the River.
Page 17, Band II: The date appearing in Band I is apparently the date when Lord Four Serpent left Hill of the Cacao at Mouth of the River, and attacked Lord Nine Flint at Hill of the Bird (91). Lord Four Serpent then marries Lady Five Monkey.
Page 17, Band III: Lady Five Monkey was the daughter of Lord Five Rain and Lady Five Wind of Tilantongo (92). In the year 1 House, day 1 Deer, Lady One House is born. She married Lord Three Deer of Bent Red Mountain (93).
Page 17, Band IV: In the year 2 Rabbit, day 4 Reed, Lord Four Reed is born (94). In the year ? Reed, Lord ? marries Lady Thirteen House who came from Tlaxiaco and was the daughter of Lord Eight Grass and Lady ?. According to Bodley Page 22, this is probably Lady One Serpent. Lord ? and Lady Thirteen House rule at Achiutla (95).
Page 18, Band I: In the year ? Reed, day 12 Vulture, Lady Twelve Vulture is born and she married Lord Four Deer at Tilantongo (96). In the year 5 House, day 11 Monkey, Lord Eleven Monkey was born and he married Lady Thirteen Death at Town of Chayote.
Page 18, Band II: Lord Four Serpent Shining Eagle marries Lady Eight Reed at Etlatongo (97). Lord Four Reed, son of Lord Four Serpent of Jaltepec marries Lady Two Earthquake in the year 10 Reed, day 3 Serpent (98). Lady Two Earthquake came from Comaltepec where her father, Lord Two Flint, and her mother, Lady Five Wind, ruled.
Page 18, Band III: In the year 3 House, day 1 Jaguar, Lord Four Reed died. He is depicted as a mummy bundle (99). Lord Eleven Jaguar marries the widow, Lady Two Earthquake (100). Lord Eleven Jaguar came from Monkey Rock where his father, Lord Ten Deer, and his mother, Lady Seven Flint, ruled.
Page 18, Band IV: The calendrical names are difficult to read but comparison with the personal names indicates that Lord Eleven Jaguar and Lady Two Earthquake went to Comaltepec. Lord Four Deer and Lady Twelve Vulture appear at Tilantongo (101).
Page 19, Band I: In the year 10 Flint, day 1 Crocodile, Lord Thirteen Grass left his parents, Lord Four Deer and Lady Twelve Vulture of Tilantongo. He meets with Lord Four Serpent and Lady Five Monkey at Jaltepec (102). In the year 11 Rabbit, day 2 House, Lady Five Monkey dies and is shown as a mummy bundle (103).
Page 19, Band II: In the year 1 Flint, day 1 Earthquake, the ruler of Jaltepec, Lord Four Serpent, dies (104). Lord Thirteen Grass of Tilantongo marries Lady Two Jaguar in the year 4 Reed, day 3 Rain. Lady Two Jaguar came from Achiutla where her parents, Lord Two Vulture and Lady Thirteen House, ruled (See Page 17, Band IV).
Page 19, Band III: In the year 8 Reed, day 10 Grass, Lord Ten Grass was born (105). In the year 9 Flint, day 8 Flint, Lady Eight Flint was born. She appears to be the sister of Lord Ten Grass and the daughter of Lord Two Vulture and Lady Thirteen House of Achiutla. Lady Eight Flint married Lord Eight Earthquake of Suchxitlan (106). The year 10 House, day 11 Monkey appears.
Page 19, Band IV: In the year 10 House, day 11 Monkey, Lord ? Eagle marries Lady Ten Death (107). In the year 11 Rabbit, day 5 Flint, Lord Five Flint was born. He married Lady Nine Water at Hill of the Whirlpool.
Page 20, Band I: Lord Eleven Death died. In the year 3 Reed, day 10 Crocodile, Lady Ten Crocodile? married Lord Five Jaguar at Plain of the Smoking Town (108). In the year 9 House, day 10 Wind, Lord Thirteen Grass died.
Page 20, Band II: Lady Five Jaguar died in year 6 Rabbit. Lord Seven Crocodile married Lady Seven Flint in year 11 Flint, day 1 Death at Hill of the Bird (109).
Page 20, Band III: In the year 1 Flint, day 1 Reed, Lord Five Grass married Lady Ten Crocodile at Jaltepec (110). Lady Ten Crocodile came from Hill of the Bird where her parents, Lord Four Wind and Lady Six House, ruled.
Pages 1-2 Jaltepecs dynasty was founded with a divine act in which the Mixtec Sun God and the Venus God descended from the sky, attacked the earth by casting darts into it, and thereby opened an orifice from which the founding male ancestor was born. This is a very similar idea to the War of Heaven theme we see in Codex Nuttall Pages 3-4 and Pages 20-21 (Pohl 2002). A second miraculous act occurs when Lord Two Grass is born from a tree at Achiutla.
Pages 3-4 Priest Ten Lizard and Priest Three Flower wrap up sacred bundles marked by four black bars signifying the numeral twenty. Lord Seven Monkey, the Colonial regent-governor of Yanhuitlán, was a 16th century descendant of both the Tilantongo and Jaltepec dynasties. After accepting the Christian faith he changed his name to that of the founder of the Dominican order, Domingo de Guzmán. Later he was accused of practicing idolatry with twenty sacred bundles, possibly those depicted in this scene (Pohl 1998:65). Smith (2000:109) interprets these pages as equivalent to scenes in the Mapa de Teozacoalco, which Caso called the offering of the royal insignia. In this case the scenes seem to show that the lords of ten kingdoms surrounding the Nochixtlán Valley paid tribute to Lord Ten Reed and that he was then entitled to burn tobacco before the Temple of the ñuhu at Jaltepec. In the course of field survey Bruce Byland and I found that the principal mound at the ancient palace of Jaltepec is still today called "Vehe ñuhu", or House of the Earth Lord.
Pages 5-6 There is a sudden shift in the dynastic inheritance of Jaltepec after five generations. It is not clear why this happens. The legitimate ruler of the first dynasty, Lord Three Rain, has no heirs. Lord Eight Wind of Suchixtlán is the great patriarch of all the principal royal lines. His biography appears in the first eight pages of Codex Zouche-Nuttall. Apparently, he wielded enough authority that he could appoint whoever he wanted in cases of failed succession throughout the Nochixtlán Valley.
I have examined the factors behind the subsequent death of the three sons of Lord Ten Eagle and Lady Nine Wind in considerable detail (Byland and Pohl 1994, Pohl 2002). Their deaths led to a dispute over the succession of Jaltepec. A similar situation was unfolding at Tilantongo. It appears that Lord Two Rain of Tilantongo was intended to marry Lady Six Monkey, but that this marriage was probably refused by her parents. In Zouche-Nuttall, Pages 7-8, Lord Two Rain is depicted meeting with a party of warlords on the advice of the patriarch Lord Eight Wind. It is significant that Lord Three Lizard Jeweled Hair, Lady Nine Winds brother according to Zouche-Nuttall Page 5, Band III, then fights his brother-in-law, Lord Ten Wind, three days later in Selden Page 6, Band II. After his defeat, Lord Two Rain is shown consulting sacred objects in a cave. The priest Six Vulture ñuhu (that Lady Six Monkey later consults) is no doubt the same character as Seven Vulture ñuhu who supernaturally directs Lord Two Rain to proceed to the heavens after he commits suicide in Codex Bodley Pages 5-6, Band I. The implication is that Six Monkey's ally is associated with Two Rain's suicide.
At Chacatongo, Priestess Nine Grass proclaims plans for an alternate marriage between Lady Six Monkey and Lord Eleven Wind of Red and White Bundle, the site of San Miguel-Huachino on the Jaltepec-Tilantongo border today. The date for this event is given in Codex Selden as year 5 Reed, day 6 Serpent, but we know from Codex Zouche-Nuttall Page 44 that this should be corrected to year 6 Reed, or A.D. 1083.
Pages 7-8 Herbert Spinden (1935) was the first to write a commentary of the fascinating confrontation between Lady Six Monkey and the Lords of Hill of the Moon and Hill of the Insect. Significantly, Lord Eight Deer, the usurper of Tilantongo, subsequently attacks a Lord Three Crocodile at Hill of the Moon in Bodley Page 10, Band II, possibly the same person as Six Monkeys appointed aid in this narrative. I have identified Hill of the Moon as the archaeological zone of El Arco on a ridge to the west of Jaltepec. Codex Selden is very careful not to mention the antagonism that is building between Lady Six Monkey of Jaltepec, her husband Eleven Wind of Red and white Bundle, and Lord Eight Deer - the usurper of Tilantongo after the suicide death of the heir Lord Two Rain. The conflict, in the year 11 House or A.D. 1101, results in Eight Deers attack on Red and White Bundle and the execution of Lady Six Monkey, her husband, and the entire royal family of Red and White Bundle. Lord Four Wind was either spared by Eight Deer or he cooperated with him; the stories vary. By marrying Eight Deers daughter Lord Four Wind consolidates the royal lines of Jaltepec, Tilantongo, and Red and White Bundle. Hill of Flints is the archaeological zone of Mogote del Cacique which was surveyed by Bruce Byland and myself.
Pages 9-10 Another successional break occurs on these pages. Although Lord One Crocodile is seen signifying his accession by burning tobacco or copal before the Temple of the ñuhu at Jaltepec, he marries but does not appear to produce any heirs. Again the reasons are difficult to ascertain and no doubt are purposefully obscured by the painters of the codex. Instead we are presented with a sequence of marriages involving several other kingdoms surrounding the Nochixtlán Valley. It may be that Mogote del Cacique-Place of Flints and Tilantongo are the principal seats of power in the region at this time. The date of Lord One Crocodiles marriage is year 6 Rabbit or A.D. 1122. The next date in the codex is year 7 Flint or A.D. 1344 (a 222 year gap in time) when Lord Nine Lizard of Jaltepec wages war at Hill of Arrows.
Pages 11-12 Mary Elizabeth Smith (1983b) has examined these pages in detail. She is particularly interested in the curious appearance of Lord Nine House, a 14th century ruler of Teozacoalco and Tilantongo who also appears in Bodley Pages 17 and 22 and Zouche-Nuttall Page 32. Nine House is shown as though he is the brother of Lord Nine Serpent, but in fact we know he had entirely different parents. Smith therefore proposes that Nine House is functioning in a ritual role of brother to the heir of Jaltepec.
Pages 13-14 Apparently Lord Seven House, the first born of Nine Serpents marriage, did not inherit Jaltepec but went to Town of the Chayote, or "Squash". The deaths of Lord Three Crocodile and Lord Seven House are mysterious. Lord Six Water of Cuilapan-Zaachila holds a weapon, but it is not clear whether he is paying military homage to them, or whether he is responsible for their deaths.
Pages 15-16 Although it appears that Lord One Monkey is the son of Lord Three Death, there are insufficient years in the chronology at this time to account for two generations. More likely One Monkey is a brother of Three Death, or he is granted some other fictive kinship status (See Byland and Pohl 1994:256. See also Hamann, 1998, for discussion of issues concerning direct descent). Lord Three Monkey, who fights Lord One Monkey of Jaltepec, is no doubt the famous lord mentioned by Spanish court historian Antonio de Herrera as having been a ruler of Yanhuitlán who fought the Aztec Motecuhzoma I. In fact, he is depicted in Bodley Page 17, Band II, as having been lord of Place of the Cob-web which I have identified as Chindua, located a few miles southeast of present day Yanhuitlán (Pohl 1998, 2003). In her examination of Codex Muro, Smith identified a Mixtec word for the quetzal as "ndodzo" (Smith 1973b). The town of Guaxilotitlán (a name derived from the Nahuatl "Guajolote" or Turkey) in the Etla arm of the Valley of Oaxaca was actually known as "ñuu Ndodzo" which in Mixtec would be "Town of the Quetzal" (Smith 1973a:177).
Pages 17-18 Lord Four Serpent was doubtless ruler when Jaltepec was attacked by the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance in 1500 and 1502 (Pohl 1991:46) yet these events are ignored by the Selden painters. There is an intentional emphasis in Mixtec codices to describe only those events which involve dynastic politics. Invasions by Aztecs and Spaniards were clearly seen as something taking place outside the Factional Dynastic System. Lord Four Deer of Tilantongo was mentioned in the Relación de Tilantongo as being alive at the time of the Spanish entry into Oaxaca.
Pages 19-20 The Selden Pages 19 and 20 are badly damaged making their interpretation virtually impossible. Fortunately, the Kingsborough art work was produced when the original Selden pages were relatively intact, and hence the Kingsborough versions are recreated here. Byron Hamann (1998) has developed some fascinating ideas about the relationship between Jaltepec and Tilantongo, suggesting that Tilantongo largely co-opts Jaltepecs authority with the death of Lord Four Serpent and the marriage of Lord Thirteen Grass who is shown with a war-band umbilical cord. In the same article he discusses some significant factors in regard to the chronology of the codices. In some cases dates and generations do not seem to fit quite as accurately as we would think. Hamann shows that the direct succession and prefered system of primogeniture that is emphasized in the codices may in fact be a cultural fiction.
The genealogy of Tilantongo, Jaltepec, and Red and White Bundle is plotted in this chart. These lines of descent sprouted from the marriages of the two princesses from Hill of the Wasp following the War of Heaven. Eight Deer started a new family line.
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